The Final Print

This is the final printed copy of the dissertation. It was self printed, using the university facilities in early 2012. I chose paper from GFSmith paper merchants, mostly because I’ve had good results from them before, but also because I know they have an incredibly wide range of paper, so I knew I could find something nice to work with. After trip to the photo studio, I’m pleased with the results – here are the pics. Click to enlarge.


Chapter Two – Tao [Draft]

Chapter Two [Draft]


There once was a young man, who upon growing up, began to contemplate life along with all the troubles and trials that it brought. He travelled to seek out an old, wise hermit – Lao-Tse. This old man was said to have all the answers to life, and the understanding that would unlock the secrets of true happiness. Upon finding this man, he began to learn, through quality time, conversation and the gradual feeding of wisdom, of this magnificent concept – Tao. (Borel, 1923.)

Tao as God

The Rhythm of Life: Based on the Philosophy of Lao-Tse is a translation of a story by Henri Borel. The synopsis is that which is stated above, opening this chapter. What is Tao? According to Lao-Tse,Tao is all around us. (1923. Pg. 24) He describes Tao as the equivalent to the western concept of ‘God’, although not personified, but an all powerful force, an eternal Omni-presence that holds everything in the universe in perfect balance. He speaks of Tao being both present as everything, and present in everything, controlling the flow of the universe, all the natural life cycles in the world – including the human life cycle, from birth through until death. He also uses nature for many examples, such as the power that controls the rolling in and out of the waves, the birds flying overhead etc. He is saying that Tao is the balance system of the universe, the rhythm of life itself. Tao is what makes life work.

How does this relate to design? It begins to illuminate the mystery of what makes for good ‘effective’ design. Before proceeding, it will be helpful to draw a simple metaphorical parallel. If we look at life, or existence, as Lao-Tse portrays it, we can see that Tao is the rhythm of life, and is what holds life together, or ‘makes it work’. If we then say that life is a metaphor for design, then what makes design work? Surely it would be Tao, but what is the metaphorical equivalent of Tao in design?

Tao in Everything

Lao-Tse teaches that Tao is existent within everything. (Borel, 1923. Pg. 24) So what is inside design? A design comprises of components – individual units that are placed together in such a way so to work to achieve a goal. (Krause, 2004. Pg. ?) Examples of these components could be colour, text, images, shapes etc. These things are the ingredients of design. Anyone can be given the ingredients to make a cake, but without knowing how to use the ingredients in the correct way, they are at risk of being misused, or rather used in a way that restricts their full potential to be accessed. Could it be that components within a design are it’s Tao? The components deliver the message, and unless the message is Tao, or rhythm, then it seems that this is not the case.

This is confirmed by Lao-Tse. Components in a composition are interned to be seen by the audience, whereas Lao-Tse clearly states; ‘In that which you see is Tao, but Tao is not what you see.(Borel, 1923. Pg. 25) Here Lao-Tse is suggesting that Tao is existent, but unseen. This means that the components in the design cannot be the Tao we are looking for in design. If this is the case, the we can look back to our earlier definition of rhythm, and observe how that led us to examine modernism and some of the devices used by the modernist designers. The typographic grid, for example, is not normally seen in a final produced layout (REF) However it is still there, underneath the components, holding them all in their correct place. It could be described as an invisible and authoritative force underpinning the face of a design. This description would match that of Tao from Lao-Tse’s perspective. The grid, like Tao, holds things in their place, in balance. In the previous chapter we discovered that the correct use of a grid brings consistency, structure and organisation to a layout, just in the same way these characteristics of rhythm are brought to everyday life through Tao. Could it be that the use of a grid in a layout is a potential manifestation of Tao in design?

Let us return to the idea of information hierarchies, which we touched upon also in the first chapter. The information hierarchy too, like the grid, as we examined previously, creates rhythm for a reader when they are digesting information. Thinking more about the hierarchy, it seems that a hierarchy is not any concrete thing as such, it is not a component of design, but unlike the grid it can still be seen, or can it? It is a separate device that results from the relationship formed between other components in a layout. You cannot have an information hierarchy without any information to give order to, but when the information required for a hierarchy is present, the hierarchy forms automatically. A hierarchy can be identified in a layout, but is it’s concept concrete enough for it to be seen? Let’s look at Fig. 3 below.

Fig 3.

Fig 3. shows a very basic layout design by skndafjknasjfa. Here we can see that a hierarchy does exist, as if were were asked to point it out, we could point to the components which we would deem ‘most important’, and explain which ones come first. However there is no concrete visual object which we can physically point to and say; ‘Hierarchy’. From this I believe we can safely say that, the hierarchy is, like the grid, at work, but unseen. This fits into both what Lao-Tse says about Tao, being unseen, and also into our parallel. So from this we can say that the hierarchy is another manifestation of Tao in design.

Tao is Nothing/Everything

Lao-Tse tells the curious man the story of the ‘Yellow Emperor’ (Borel, 1923. Pg. 21), who loses his precious pearl, and despite failing trying to find it through means of knowledge, sight and speech, he finds it by doing nothing. Lao-Tse explains the the man that the pearl is a metaphor for the Yellow Emperor’s soul, and so the story takes a shift into new light; he finds his soul through ‘peace and perfect quietude’.

In this instance Lao-Tse is saying that to succeed, you need to do nothing. You need to be at peace – in complete harmony with Tao. You must become part of Tao, and accept Tao as your natural state of being. (Borel, 1923 Pg. 74-75) Only then will you truly understand the world, and be content with your position in it. Our parallel begins to emerge even further here. If we were to succeed in design (let’s presume that this is giving the perfect answer to a design brief) by doing nothing, we would stick with white space and leave it at that, without adding any components. Returning to the idea of white space having the potential for ‘perfect communication’, does this mean that white space is another form of Tao in design? If Tao is Nothing, then Tao is everything. This makes sense because it runs in line with what Lao-Tse says about Tao being all around us. If we substitute ‘us’ (humans) for the components of of a design, then this makes sense, because the white space surrounds the components, just as Tao surrounds us in this world.

Tao is Harmony
Lao-Tse also tells the man; ‘We fit as naturally into this beauty around us as a tree or a mountain. If we can but remain so, we shall always retain the feeling of our own well-being, midst all the great workings of the world-system.(Borel, 1923. Pg. 61-62) Here I believe, Lao-Tse is describing harmony. Returning to the parallel, this runs in line with visual harmony in layout design. Let’s look at this quote as if an individual layout component was saying it; ‘We fit as naturally into this beauty…’ The component knows that it has been placed specifically by the designer for a specific purpose, and it accepts its position in the ‘midst [of] all the great workings of the world-system.’ The ‘World system’ here, is the layout design itself. So just as people live in and around the world, with the invisible Tao (the God-like power) amongst and around them at all times, the same can be said for design. The components live in and around the layout, the with the invisible Tao (the grid, hierarchy and white space) amongst and around them at all times. However it seems unfair to give all the praise of Tao in design to these three elements of design alone.

Chapter One – Nothing [Draft]

Chapter One [Draft]


It seems the ideal place to start is to find out whether or not rhythm is present in design, and this means looking for it. So what exactly are we looking for? What is rhythm? As mentioned previously I understand rhythm from a musical perspective, and so to shift it into a defined abstract idea, I’ll take the characteristics of rhythm into account. What I already understand rhythm to be (in a musical sense), is repetition, sequence, pattern and structure. Surely by looking at the characteristics of musical rhythm, I will be able to find correlation between that of musical and abstract rhythm?

For us to truly understand this correlation, I’ll briefly explain time signatures. A [musical] rhythm, comprises of a pattern. There is a point where the pattern starts, and another where it ends before being repeated any amount of times. If this pattern is not repeated it is not a rhythm, but merely a pattern. The length of this pattern is set to a tempo, which is an indefinite number of beats at a certain speed. The time signature is how many beats of that tempo are taken up in one repeat of the pattern in the rhythm, and how many times the pattern is repeated in that rhythm. This is shown if Fig 1.

Fig 1.

A time signature is written as two numbers, divided by a slash (4/4, for example.) In Fig 1. you can see that the pattern is comprised of four beats. This makes up the first number in the signature, This pattern is repeated four times. This gives us the second number and completes the rhythm that is 4/4. This diagram shows us the difference between pattern and rhythm. I have also recorded an audio sample supporting Fig 1. which can be found on my blog [Address Here]

It would be unwise to deduce a definition of abstract rhythm on my judgement alone, and so I looked at the most obvious where definitions are to be found – a dictionary. The Pocket Oxford Dictionary (2011, Pg. ) expands my list of rhythmic characteristics from four adjectives to nine. It describes rhythm to be repetitive, consistent, sequential, structured, organised, predictable, patterned, flowing and harmonious. Comparing this back to my understanding of musical rhythm, all these adjectives seem fitting, and so I will use this list of nine characteristics as my definition of rhythm from which I can refer back to and compare other things against.
Modernism (Reduction & Simplicity)
Now that I have established (what I believe to be) a sufficient list of adjectives defining abstract rhythm, I need to look for these characteristics in design, where can I find them? The first thing that jumps to mind is the Modernist design movement. Modernism began in DATE HERE and was spearheaded by figures such as Josef Muller Brockmann, Karl Gerstner and Armin Hoffman. (REF) Modernist design is known for it’s clean cut, grid aligned, no-nonsense form. Or more specifically, their ‘function over form’ attitude. (REF) So why were the modernists so clean in their execution?

“Less is more” is a famous quote, by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (brainyquote, 2011) suggests that the simpler things are, the more effective and practical they become. Of course being a key figure in the Modernist design movement, you could argue that his opinion is somewhat biased. However his view is supported by French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, who says that “Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.” (2000) I think that as a general rule, and I say this with only a student’s worth of experience, that these statements are accurate. When things are presented in a clean and tidy manner, they become organised, and therefore appear to be presented in a clearer fashion. (REF) Thinking back to our definition of rhythm, this occurrence of organisation suggests that rhythm is present in modernist design.

All this thinking appears to stem from the structuralist ethos, which influenced the development of the modernist attitude – the idea is that through a set of rules and guidelines, a very specific and exact message can be communicated to a reader. (Baines, P & Haslam, A., 2005. Pg. 35) This idea suggests that a degree of control can be asserted over the reader, subliminally forcing them to digest the given information in a certain order. The reader is sequentially ‘drip-fed’ parts of information in the desired order of importance, as to allow the communication of the message specifically how the communicator intended. But how is this done? What is this mystical ‘code of conduct’ the modernist follows to achieve this? The modernist designer completes this job throughout the use of a number of different methods. These include the use of information hierarchies, the typographic grid, and other graphic devices. (REF) Before we discuss these, however, there is something crucial that we should look at – The concept of Nothing.


What is Nothing? What does it mean? Nothing as a concept seems to me, to be a contradiction. This is evident when we deconstruct it. If you are trying to define a lack of objects/things that are in question, then that task automatically becomes impossible, because to exclude things from something (be it an attribute, characteristic or whatever) then you have to label that thing to identify it as the thing you are excluding. This is where Nothing as a concept seems to fail. For example, if we have one hundred different objects painted red in an otherwise empty room, then you could state ‘nothing is blue’. This would be true from the perspective of the contents of the room, however, if you shift this into an equation, and say: ‘____ is blue’, you need to fill in the gap, and ask, what is blue? The answer, is nothing. So what is nothing?

To answer that, you would need to take each of the one hundred objects individually, and list them, excluding them from the possible ‘blue basket’ (of course the use of the word ‘nothing’ does this job quickly). It seems to work in a similar way to mathematics, where two separate negatives cancel each other out and form a positive. So in this instance therefore, to define ‘nothing’ is to define everything, or more specifically everything that isn’t blue.

If one of the objects in the room was a book, and this was painted blue, then the same can be said: ‘Nothing else in this room is blue’. What is nothing else? Nothing else is everything else.

And so again, the concept of Nothing fails, because you can’t define it by itself. Nothing is nothing. Nothing is everything. To define Nothing you need something.

There are my thoughts, but I’ve discovered that this has been discussed before in an extract from the Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (marxistphilosophy, 2011.) It states that “nothingness is pure non-being and impossible abstract emptiness”. This was written by C. Khoruzhii, and I think that here he is stating the same as my thought process described above – he is saying that the concept of Nothing is impossible, that the idea of Nothing can’t be conceived.

Visual Nothingness (Absence & White Space)

However, in contrast to these thoughts, you could say that Nothing works as a concept of absence. You could substitute the word ‘Nothing’ for the word ‘absent’ in the previous equation, so let’s revisit the equation:

‘nothing is blue’ = ‘absent is blue’.

This puts Nothing into a synonymous context with ‘absent’, and makes more sense, simplifying (and almost eliminating) the complex concept of Nothing, as Nothing no longer needs to be defined.

Absence, I believe, can be a powerful thing, and so does Anna Barisani. In her text, ‘Thought-Art’ (2010.) She describes the blank canvas to show nothing and yet everything at the same time, so again, we have nothing and everything together. It is this contrast – the juxtaposition, the twisted marriage between nothing and everything that we can see emerging seems all important, but why?

The answer points to something called white space. White space is the designer’s friend. It is the canvas, the creative space, the sandbox, the workbench, or the playground in which the designer plays. (REF) White space is freedom. It is a place where Nothing exists – a place that is in a continuous state of absence, until the designer creates onto it. But while it is in this state, it holds a certain dynamism. How can whitespace be dynamic if there is nothing there? Whitespace is a spatial area that contains Nothing on or in it, and if Nothing is everything, then whitespace must contain everything. Or more specifically the potential for everything. Modernist design exhibits a generous amount of white space, (REF) and with this therefore must come a generous amount of potential. Maybe it is this potential that the Modernist feeds off and is inspired by. The potential to fulfil their ethos, the potential for perfect communication.

Something and Nothing need each other to work. You can’t have a single graphic component, because it would be undefinable. Without white space behind it, it is invisible. As soon as any component is added to white space, then a division is made. A clear contrast is established between emptiness and something. Something is now there. The potential of the white space has been successfully accessed and utilised by the designer. It seems that it is impossible for Modernism (and potentially all graphic design) to operate outside of space. White space provides the backdrop on which all other graphic devices work.

Information Hierarchies

Moving back to the idea of the the Modernist ethos, let’s take a look at one of the key methods through which this is executed – the information hierarchy. An information hierarchy, in design terms, is the order of visual components in a composition. (Krause, 2004. Pg. 61) The hierarchy is an important tool in design, as it ‘sets the ball rolling’ if you like, for the layout design. It establishes what is the most important piece of information/part of the design, and then orders all of the design components through from the component with the highest status all the way down to the lower status components.

Once the most important part is established and shown, the viewer’s eye is drawn to this first, and then it finds a path through the other information. By using a hierarchy, the designer can create visual flow, (Krause, 2004, Pg. ?) and ensure that the viewer takes a path which delivers the correct information in the intended order. If a hierarchy creates visual flow, and if flow is a characteristic of abstract rhythm, then we know the hierarchy is a tool which can be used to create a visual rhythm for the viewer to fall into.

The Typographic Grid (Rhythm & Harmony)

But components cannot be placed just anywhere on a layout, can they? Well they could, but this might result in a very confused layout, and a confused reader. The typographic grid is another tool the modernist designers used to provide a design with rhythm. The grid is what allows graphic components, such as type and images to be aligned, and alignment brings consistency, structure and organisation to a composition. (Baines, P & Haslam, A., 2005. Pg. 145) These things are all characteristics of our defined rhythm. I have demonstrated the difference in layout design with and without grid use in the examples below. Figure 2.1 is a simple layout without the use of a grid.

Fig 2.1.

This example shows how if components are thrown randomly onto a page, viewers may feel intimidated. The block of text in the middle of the layout appears heavy, with no breaks. This makes it become a chore to read. The components are also disjointed. This is the result of un-alignment amongst them, which can cause an aesthetic that could be considered random or chaotic. Below, Fig 2.2 contains the same information, but the type is aligned to a grid structure:

Fig 2.2.

Here in Fig 2.2 you can see how the same three components containing the same information are aligned to a 6-column grid. Even though only four of the columns are used to position the main text, this breaks up the information, and makes it appear easily digestible instead of threatening. The information is broken via the use of negative space. This is what differentiates [on a canvas] ‘Nothing’ from ‘something’, creating the columns of information. Both columns are the same size, and this column structure is repeated only twice. It is this repetition that creates rhythm for the reader. Repetition is a technique that creates harmony in design. It can be used to emphasise the importance of something, to create visual links and to draw the reader’s attention to something specific. (Krause, 2004. Pg. 52) The text in the second, grid-aligned example is set into columns, but not all text will use columns. Novels, for example, will usually have pages of single, page-wide columned text, however this will still be broken into smaller sections i.e. paragraphs, for ease of reader digestion.

These are just two examples showing how rhythm can be manifested visually in layout design, and they both need white space to succeed. This white space seems pretty important, but why? Because it defines things. All the graphic devices and design components in a layout (text, image, colour etc.) – exhibiting rhythm or not, can only be seen when contrasted against something else. We will delve further into this when examining Gestalt principals in chapter three.

Chapter Three – Gestalt [Draft]

Chapter Three – Gestalt [Draft]


Discovering, through being a student, the magnificent world of research, and truly understanding what it means to me – reading to gain knowledge in something that interests you – that there are countless fields of investigation and thinking – people recording their thought processes and theories in books with the (equally magnificent) typography. Seeing how these fields link over and bleed into each other has opened my eyes as to how areas of interest – for example graphic design, can be read up on theoretically, philosophically and intellectually. So I figured that looking at the concept of nothing, and layout and information design, there was bound to be a study/philosophy on these subjects – and I think this is it – Gestalt.

Brief History & Note

Gestalt is a German psychology, focusing on perception. It was created in 19700000 by a number of members, including —– & —– &   Wolfgang Kohler, the latter of which wrote the text ‘Gestalt Psychology’ (1970). It is with this text that I take most of my examples in this chapter. Because I use a lot of references from this book, I will abbreviate the reference by using a ‘G’ – For example ‘(G1970, Pg34)’. This will distinguish references that come from ‘Gestalt Psychology’ apart from other references. I believe I’m right in saying that graphic communication is visual, and it seems obvious that our eyes are the essential medium for the conversion of information from print and screen to personal knowledge, and so a look into a study of perception is justified enough.

So what is Gestalt, in a literal sense? Gestalt translates from German (G1970, Pg. 177-178) as a synonym for form or shape. I.e ‘That object’s gestalt is quite angular.’ But Gestalt also has another meaning in the German language; it can also be defined as a definite existence or entity which exhibits characteristics including a shape or form. This is interesting, because if we distill both of these definitions, we find words such as ‘shape’, ‘appearance’, and perception. This makes sense, because

As a simple example, if you look at a few words written in a foreign language, you will not understand their meaning, until you learn their meaning.

When Kohler mentions the ‘lines drawn by natural organisation’, I don’t think he means the physical boundaries that create the segregated units, but the cultural and historical lines

For example we hear a siren fly by outside our window, we know what that means, don’t we? It usually means someone, somewhere is in trouble, in danger, or injured. But how can we differentiate between what siren sound belongs to police, to the fire service, and the ambulance? It is possible, but they need to be learnt.

This discussion trails off into the realm of semiotics, but that’s not where we are headed.

Gestalt & Tao:

Gestalt philosophy and that of Tao present us with some interesting links. Whilst talking about his study, (G1970, Pg 139) Kohler states that “Gestalt psychology claims that it is precisely the original segregation of circumscribed wholes which makes it possible for the sensory world to appear so utterly imbued with meaning to the adult; for, in it’s gradual entrance into the sensory field, meaning follows the lines drawn by natural organisation; it usually enters into segregated wholes.”

I can take away two main things from what Kohler says here, the first, is simply that what makes meaning exist, is the fact that visual existences (things in our visual field) can be differentiated from each other. Because there is always a visual boundary separating one thing in our visual field from another, these things can be identified and therefore meaning applied to/derived from them. The second point that I believe Kohler is getting across, is that meaning [in the entire sensory field, not only the visual field] doesn’t occur instantly, it is gradual, a learnt process. And when it does occur, usually ends up as segregated wholes. It falls into place, as nature intended, which gives the impression of flow and order. It sounds as if meaning doesn’t have a choice, but it’s only option is to follow the ‘natural organisation’, falling into place – into balance and. This relates directly to the Tao philosophy in that everything has balance, beauty, everything flows in cycles.

This idea of cycles is promoted by Kohler, who mentions that individual parts of a whole can be moved separately, to break away from the rest, and reunited with them. (G1970, Pg 142-143) This quite modular concepts of breaking and recombination at will is very interesting, as Lao-Tse speaks of us (humans) as being part of Tao overall, that we are not part of this world, and that we will eventually return to become one with Tao, our true form.

Gestalt & Nothing:

189 – flow results from organised wholes

Gestalt & Rhythm:

188 – rhythm and melody – empty space

Visual Groups become a unit. – proximity. page 137

141 description of visual harmony

176 – harmony is a product of organisation.

172 – organised processes alter the conditions of the medium which they are in.

174 – local stimulation is extended with area.  When you perceive something, it’s meaning can change depending on it’s context.

192 – previous experience and habituation.

  1. Overview of Gestalt – what is it?
  2. History of Gestalt?
  3. The whole is greater than the parts
  4. The ‘Gestalt Effect’
  5. Looking at the Gestalt methods
  6. Showing them at work in existing design

Our field of vision is not of specific segregated objects that exist separately, but is comprised entirely of light waves.

We perceive a ‘mosaic’ of textures, colours and hues. The difference in visual detail between two areas (when light is reflecting off them), creates segregated visual components that are distinguishable from one another. I think that relating to design, Kohler argues that we don’t see only elements, we perceive the whitespace as well, we don’t look only at the parts, we perceive the whole, but we are enabled to home in on the parts and focus on them individually.

This is done through organisation of components. – lead into gestalt principals

link into information hierarchies.

Gestalt psychology is based on certain principals – these principals

Musical memory is stored in a different part of the brain. Available at: <; [Accessed Monday 21st November 2011].

Chapter Plan


Does rhythm exist in design, and if so, how is it manifested?


Introduction (800)






Chapter One [Gestalt]: (2000)

  1. Overview of Gestalt – what is it?
  2. History of Gestalt?
  3. The whole is greater than the parts
  4. The ‘Gestalt Effect’
  5. Looking at the Gestalt methods
  6. Showing them at work in existing design

Chapter Two [Tao]: (2000)

  1. Overview of Tao and Lao-Tse – a short history – include the tale of the Yellow Emperor.
  2. Tao as rhythm/Tao is rhythm
  3. Tao in Everything/Tao is everything
  4. Examining the parallel between Tao principals and design
  5. Tao as visual devices and design choices – the hidden workings of design – you cannot see them, but they are always there.
  6. Gestalt as Tao – revisiting the previous Gestalt examples, and seeing the how and where they are present.

Chapter Three [Nothing]: (2000)

Less is more (reduction)

Nothing is Nothing – The word ‘nothing’ – as a concept is somewhat of a contradiction, because there is always something, so it doesn’t work. So nothing (object/thing in question) can be labelled ‘nothing’. The grid (as an example) is not seen on a final layout design – even if the design is a blank canvas – You could say that nothing is there, however the grid is there, it is just unseen.

The Grid and other visual systems.

Information Hierarchies – Is an info hierarchy a form of rhythm in design? Do ordering and sequencing of visual components/graphic elements

White space/negative space – this might be considered as nothing. Space is a powerful thing and can change a vast amount of things within a layout.

Typography – Kerning – manual spacing of letters to make them appear uniform results in a steady visual rhythm.

Repetition – uniformity – all aspects, mannerisms and qualities of rhythm.

Rhythm as nothing?

Closure (800)




Reference List



Liz McQuiston Contact

Letterform Construction

It seems that the wealth of information about the form, shap and construction of letterforms is a river that runs deeper than I thought.

The history of letterform construction and style is complex and fascinating. There are levels of classification that previously, I’ve completely overlooked. I always presumed ‘Roman’ was a single style.

I now need to learn the names and differences of the letterforms until I can define/classify upon a glance. I have no Idea how long that’ll take, but I can start with these:


Roman – Separated into two main broad classifications: Old Style, and Modern Style.

Roman typefaces take Traditional Roman capitals, and humanist style lower case with added serif elements to create harmony with The Caps.


Hand & Script

Stephen Fry’s Planet Word

Starting up tonight is a new documentary series, which could potentially help me with the project. Starts at 9pm. Damnit, it clashes with Downton Abbey, I’ll have to record one.

The Research Begins: Type & Typography – Phil Baines & Andrew Haslam

I’ve been having thoughts about the subject of my dissertation recently, some of them second. I’m stuck in this indecision about what to write the dissertation on. I know for sure that I want to write on and explore typography, but I’m not sure what to link it to. Maybe I’m getting too ahead of myself, so for now, I’ve started reading this book:

Type & Typography – Phil Baines & Andrew Haslam (Second Edition)

My thinking was that if I just started reading, then through my learning, I’d discover new links between subjects, or other areas to explore. Nothing too exciting so far.


This project was introduced to us as a wider reading and massivly researched-driven thought scramble. Getting started seems really quite intimidating, however thanks to our tutor Malcolm Southward, who some time ago, handed us a page labelled ‘The Done Manifesto’, I feel the intimidation leave me somewhat. Now I feel like I should just make a start, any start at all – and this is it.